Conjunctions are words that join together two thoughts or ideas. Examples of conjunctions are: and, or, for, nor, but, yet, so, because, although, unless, since, etc.
"There were many people there but I only saw three of my friends." - the two ideas of this sentence are "many people there" and "seeing three of my friends"
"We were planning on going for a hike although the weather was bad." - the two ideas of this sentence are "planning to go on a hike" and "the weather was bad"
Conjunctions vary in meaning. Some can join two like topics, some contradict the other idea, some help when listing different things, some justify the other part of the sentence, etc. Using the sentences above, let's look at the different meaning of the conjunctions in each sentence:
"I wanted to see you and to give you your birthday present." - "and" connects two ideas
"There were many people there but I only saw three of my friends." - "but" is used to say that even though something happened, something else didn't happen or happen the way they thought it would
"We were planning on going for a hike although the weather was bad." - "although" here is used to justify the other part of the sentence
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